Sonic Adventure
Sonic Adventure
Developer(s) Sonic Team
Publisher(s) Sega
Director(s) Takashi Iizuka
Producer(s) Yuji Naka
Programmer(s) Tetsu Katano
Writer(s) Akinori Nishiyama
Series Sonic the Hedgehog
Platform(s) Dreamcast, GameCube, Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Platform, action, role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player

Sonic Adventure[lower-alpha 1] is a 1998 platform video game for the Dreamcast. The story follows Sonic the Hedgehog, Miles "Tails" Prower, Knuckles the Echidna, Amy Rose, Big the Cat, and E-102 Gamma in their respective quests to collect the seven Chaos Emeralds and stop Doctor Robotnik from unleashing Chaos, an ancient evil. Controlling one of the six playable characters—each with their own special abilities—players must explore a series of themed levels to advance the story. Players can also interact with Chao, a virtual pet.

Following the cancellation of the Sega Saturn game Sonic X-treme, Sonic Team began work on Sonic Adventure in 1997 as the first main game in the Sonic the Hedgehog series to feature full 3D gameplay. A 60-member development team created the game in ten months, drawing inspiration from real-world locations in Peru and Guatemala. Yuji Uekawa redesigned the characters to better suit the series' transition to 3D, and various features were added to take advantage of the Dreamcast hardware. Sega announced the game in August 1998; it was released in Japan that December and worldwide in September 1999.

The game received critical acclaim and became the Dreamcast's best-seller, moving over two million copies by 2006. Reviewers lauded the game's impressive visuals and unique gameplay, saying it successfully moved the Sonic franchise to 3D. Despite this, some critics were frustrated by its camera controls and glitches, while reactions to the game's sound were mixed. Speculation arose that Sonic Adventure could popularize the Dreamcast and re-establish Sega as the dominant console manufacturer after the relatively unsuccessful Saturn. The game is considered one of the most important of the sixth generation of video game consoles and among the best of the Sonic series.

After Sega's shift to third-party software development, ports of Sonic Adventure were developed for the GameCube, Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3. Reviews for these versions were less positive, with critics noting the game had not aged well and ran at an inconsistent frame rate. One of the characters introduced in the game—Big the Cat—has been called one of the worst characters to feature in a video game. Many of the changes made in Sonic Adventure later became staples of the Sonic series. A direct sequel, Sonic Adventure 2, was released in 2001.


Gameplay screenshot of Speed Highway, one of the levels in Sonic Adventure. In this image, Sonic runs on a road, to a line of rings. The HUD shows a timer, the amount of rings, and the player's lives.

Gameplay screenshot showing Sonic in one of the game's levels

Sonic Adventure is a 3D platformer action game with role-playing elements.[1] Players controls one of the game's anthropomorphic protagonists as they venture to defeat Doctor Robotnik and his robot army, who seek the seven magical Chaos Emeralds and the evil entity Chaos. Six characters are unlocked as the game progresses, each with their own story and attributes. Sonic the Hedgehog can perform a spin dash, homing attack, and light-speed dash; Miles "Tails" Prower can fly, swim, and attack robots using his tails; Knuckles the Echidna can glide, climb walls, and punch; Amy Rose can defeat enemies using her hammer; Big the Cat is slow and carries a fishing rod he can cast, and E-102 Gamma can shoot laser beams.[2][3]

At the start of the game, the player is placed in one of several Adventure Fields, open-ended hub worlds inhabited by advice-giving non-player characters. The player character is guided and instructed by the voice of Tikal the Echidna. Through exploration, the player discovers entrances to levels called Action Stages, some of which must be opened using keys hidden in the Adventure Field.[4]:141—142 Once the player accesses an Action Stage, they are tasked with a specific objective, which is different for each character.[5] Sonic and Amy must reach the level's end; Tails must reach the end before Sonic; Knuckles must find three hidden shards of the Master Emerald; Big must fish for his pet frog, and Gamma must fight his way through stages using projectiles as a defense.[3][4]:140

Like previous Sonic the Hedgehog games, players collect golden rings as a form of health: if the player character is in possession of rings when they are hit by an enemy or other hazard, they will survive, but their rings will scatter and blink before disappearing. Canisters containing power-ups such as speed shoes, additional rings, invincibility, and elemental shields are also hidden in levels. In several stages, the player engages Robotnik or Chaos in a boss fight and must deplete the boss's health meter to proceed.[6][7] Each character starts the game with a limited number of lives, and the player loses a life if the character drowns, gets crushed, or is hit without any rings in their possession. Losing all lives ends the game. Lives can be replenished by collecting 100 rings or a 1-up.[3]

Players may also discover Chao Gardens, hidden, protective environments inhabited by Chao, a virtual pet. Players can hatch, name, and interact with a Chao,[6] and raise the status of their Chao by giving it small animals found by defeating robots. The Dreamcast's handheld Visual Memory Unit (VMU) allows the player to download the minigame Chao Adventure, in which their Chao walks through a course to evolve and improve its skills.[5][8] Evolving one's Chao improves its performance in competitions called Chao Races. Eggs that can produce special types of Chao are hidden throughout the Adventure Fields. Players can earn emblems by playing through Action Stages, searching through the Adventure Fields, or winning Chao Races.[2][9] Each Action Stage has three emblems that can be earned by replaying the stages and fulfilling certain objectives, such as beating the level within a time limit.[3]


On Angel Island, a tribe of echidnas lives in harmony with the Chao, who protect the Master Emerald. One of the echidnas, Tikal, befriends Chaos, who protects the Chao. The power-hungry echidnas try to harness the power of the Master Emerald and massacre the Chao in the process. Horrified, Chaos harnesses the power of the Chaos Emeralds to transform into his Perfect form and destroy the island, but is stopped when Tikal seals herself and Chaos inside the Master Emerald.

Thousands of years later, Doctor Robotnik shatters the Master Emerald as part of his scheme to obtain the seven Chaos Emeralds, releasing Chaos and Tikal. Knuckles sets out to find the shards of the Master Emerald, while Sonic and Tails try to stop Robotnik retrieving the Chaos Emeralds. Meanwhile, Robotnik activates Gamma to find Froggy, who has eaten a Chaos Emerald and is being pursued by his owner, Big. Amy discovers a Flicky in possession of a Chaos Emerald and names it Birdie. They are captured by Robotnik's forces, but Amy persuades Gamma not to work for Robotnik and to help her escape.

Eventually, Robotnik gathers the Chaos Emeralds and feeds them to Chaos, who uses their negative energy to transform into Perfect Chaos. Perfect Chaos destroys Station Square so Robotnik can build Robotnikland atop its ruins. Sonic, however, uses the positive energy of the Chaos Emeralds to transform into his super form and defeats Chaos. Chaos is quelled when he sees the Chao living peacefully in Station Square and disappears with Tikal. Realizing he has lost, Robotnik flees, and Sonic chases him to places unknown.



After the completion of the Sega Genesis game Sonic & Knuckles in 1994, Sega began development on Sonic X-treme, which would have been released in 1996 as the first Sonic the Hedgehog game to feature full 3D gameplay. The game's platform changed several times; in its earliest form, it was designed for the Genesis before moving to the 32X and eventually the Sega Saturn. The game, became stuck in development hell, however, after a series of setbacks, resulting in its cancellation in 1997.[10][11] The fate of Sonic X-treme is considered an important factor in the Saturn's commercial failure. Without it, the system had no original Sonic platform game, whereas the series was attributed to the success of the Genesis.[12] In its place, Sega released a port of the Genesis game Sonic 3D Blast for the Saturn.[13]

After the release of Sonic & Knuckles, series co-creator Yuji Naka moved from Sega of America to Japan to work with Sonic Team.[14] Naka began to focus on original projects for the Saturn, such as Sonic Team's Nights into Dreams, rather than a Sonic game.[4]:67[15] However, Naka still wanted to make an original 3D Sonic game, and felt that only Sonic Team should do it. He refused to let Sega Technical Institute (STI)—the studio developing Sonic X-treme—use the Nights into Dreams game engine for this reason, which was a factor in the game's cancellation.[16][17] In August 1996, Nights into Dreams designer Takashi Iizuka proposed a role-playing-style Sonic game with a greater emphasis on storytelling to Naka. This proposal served as the basis for Sonic Adventure.[18][19]

Saturn development and transition to Dreamcast Edit

Development of Sonic Adventure began in April 1997 on the Saturn with a 20-strong team.[4]:139[19][15][20] Sonic Team created the first prototype using the game engine developed for Nights into Dreams,[17] but the Saturn's limited capabilities made development difficult.[4]:65 When Naka was informed by Sega president Hayao Nakayama of the Saturn's successor, the Dreamcast, however, he believed the new console would allow Sonic Team to create the best Sonic game ever.[4]:67 Consequently, when the team learned the system was nearing completion, they decided to move development to it in order to take advantage of its greater quantity of RAM and stronger CPU as well as the VMU. Not wanting to waste their completed work, they placed it as a bonus in the compilation game Sonic Jam, the final Sonic game for the Saturn.[4]:65[19]

In July 1997, Sonic Team began re-developing Sonic Adventure for the Dreamcast, and the team expanded to 60 individuals. The 3D visuals were created using a Voodoo2 graphics chip.[19] Sonic Adventure was one of the largest video games ever created at the time[1][21][22] yet was completed over a relatively brief 10-month development period.[19] Developed in conjunction with the Dreamcast, Sonic Team aimed for the game to be released in December 1998, even if it meant having to improve it after release.[4]:69[22] Developing Sonic Adventure at the same time as the system, which was not completed until two months before the game's release,[23] gave Iizuka influence over the console's development:[24] For example, he was able to request more RAM for the console specifically for Sonic Adventure.[22]

Design Edit

Yuji Uekawa's concept art, showcasing his redesign of Sonic. The handwritten notes showcase some of the redesign's elements.

Yuji Uekawa redesigned Sonic to appear slimmer and more "mature".

According to Iizuka, Sonic Team felt challenged by the new hardware to recreate Sonic and his world in a new way.[25] They began development using the original character designs from the Genesis games, but quickly discovered the characters' bodies were too short and their heads were too big, making them difficult to see with the camera. Thus, Yuji Uekawa was tasked with redesigning each character to better suit the transition to 3D and to give them "new, edgy, more Western character design work".[25] Looking to the animation of Walt Disney and Looney Tunes for inspiration, Uekawa began to redesign Sonic by rendering the character more "mature", taller, and slimmer with longer quills. He also gave Sonic green irises in reference to Green Hill Zone while darkening his blue coloration. Uekawa tried to make Sonic look like a comic book character, later comparing his design to graffiti. After redesigning Sonic, Uekawa redesigned the other characters to fit the game's new art style.[25]

To achieve a more natural, realistic feel for the environments, the core members of Sonic Team visited temples, jungles, and ancient ruins in Mesoamerican landscapes, including Cancun, Guatemala, and Peru. They used photographs taken during their visits as textures for the game. The greatest visual influences were the Tikal ruin in Guatemala and Machu Picchu in Peru.[24] The character Tikal was inspired by Peru and took her name from the Guatemalan ruins. The team also wanted to add elements that were unexpected in a platform game; after seeing a group of people sandboarding in Ica, Peru, they used this as a reference for a level in which Tails boards on sand.[4]:68[18] Stages featured gameplay similar to the original Genesis games and were designed to take at least five minutes to complete.[21] One of the biggest challenges the designers faced was transitioning the series' 2D style to 3D.[22] Some of the game's levels, such as the Lost World, were rebuilt dozens of times;[18][26] others referenced past Sega games, such as Ice Cap (Sonic the Hedgehog 3) and the Tornado levels (Panzer Dragoon Saga).[4]:142 Simply jumping on enemies to defeat them, a common element of the 2D games, was considerably harder in a 3D area. Therefore, Sonic was given the ability to target enemies in mid-air.[18] The cinematic sequences were conceived to take advantage of the environments, "giving the player an element of discovery in addition to the platforming".[22][24]

When the level designs were completed, Naka decided to use them for other characters and playstyles.[21] Sonic Team had already implemented an in-game fishing rod with no context or use, so they created Big[27] as a contrast to the other action-based characters.[18] Gamma and his playstyle were created in response to fans who wanted elements of a shoot 'em up game in Sonic.[21][18] Neither Big nor Gamma were intended to play a large role in the game, thus both of their campaigns were short.[28] Iizuka wanted to create a villain who would have been impossible to make on older hardware. He decided to settle on something liquid and transparent and therefore created Chaos. He presented the concept to Naka, who was impressed and accepted the character.[18] Chaos was originally intended to have realistic blue scales in his perfect form, but this idea was abandoned because of the technological constraints of the Dreamcast.[29] According to Iizuka, the team tried to include as much content as possible.[22]

Another new addition was the Chao-raising system, which Iizuka conceived to take advantage of the VMU.[4]:70 Sonic Team had previously used a similar virtual pet-raising system called the A-Life in Nights into Dreams;[18] Iizuka used the A-Life as a base, while improving it with the VMU and the option to improve its skills.[4]:71 Iizuka hoped it would be made into a character players could touch and raise.[24] It was also designed to appeal to casual gamers not familiar with games like Sonic,[18] and to add replay value.[30] The design took considerable time to finalize and had to be made as simple as possible because the virtual pet's look changes form as it evolves.[24]


While some Sonic games, such as 1993's Sonic CD, had some voice work, Sonic Team embraced voice acting while developing Sonic Adventure.[1] The decision to include voice acting was made at the beginning of development because the game was more story-focused than previous games. As Sonic had never spoken in a video game, Sonic Team's staff had differing opinions about how he should sound. Iizuka recalled that the only element they agreed on was to avoid using a voice actor from an anime, favoring a film actor with an "over the top" voice.[22] The English-language voice cast consists of Ryan Drummond as Sonic,[31] Corey Bringas as Tails, Michael McGaharn as Knuckles, Jennifer Douillard as Amy, Jon St. John as Big, and Deem Bristow as Robotnik.[32]

The musical score of Sonic Adventure was primarily composed by Jun Senoue, with additional music by Fumie Kumatani, Kenichi Tokoi, and Masaru Setsumaru.[33][34] The group created the game's main theme, "Open Your Heart";[35] other vocal themes were performed by Marion Saunders, Dredd Fox, Ted Poley, Nikki Gregoroff, Tony Harnell, and Johnny Gioeli.[4]:143 The team preferred the use of "hot, funky, and rock 'n' roll" music over the traditional electropop-based music present in earlier Sonic games.[21][14] Iizuka stated the style was adopted because the Dreamcast's sound was a significant advance from that of the Genesis.[22] A two-disc soundtrack, Sonic Adventure "Digi-LOG Conversation" Original Sound Track, was released in Japan in January 1999.[36] In May 2011, Sega re-released the soundtrack to celebrate the Sonic franchise's 20th anniversary.[35] Digital versions were also released on iTunes and Spotify in September 2014 and January 2017, respectively.[37][38][39] The soundtrack is also due for release on a vinyl LP in 2018 and will include interviews with Senoue and Iizuka.[40]


Top: Sonic runs from an orca that is chasing him in the original Dreamcast version of Sonic Adventure. Bottom: The same scene in Sonic Adventure DX, showing the graphical upgrades applied to the game.

The original Sonic Adventure on the Dreamcast (top) compared to Sonic Adventure DX on the GameCube (bottom)

Sonic Adventure was kept a secret during its production period,[19][21] though screenshots were leaked in mid-1998 and plans for a 3D Sonic game had long been rumored.[21][41] The game was unveiled by Naka and the rest of Sonic Team on August 22, 1998,[21] at the Tokyo International Forum. The team showed off several of the game's most dynamic elements, such as a chase sequence from the first level and Tails' sandboarding sequence. Naka described the debut as intense, having "[given his] all" to make it fit for release.[4]:69

On December 21, 1998, Sonic Adventure was released in Japan.[42] The Japanese version shipped with many development glitches and camera problems, so to ensure the North American version did not have these problems, several members of Sonic Team flew to Sega of America to patch the game, delaying its release in the region by several months.[4]:69 The localization was released in North America on September 9, 1999,[43] and in Europe on September 23, 1999.[44] It includes Japanese and English-language audio tracks, as well as Japanese, English, Spanish, French and German subtitles.[45] Online features—including Chao daycare and downloadable content (DLC) such as minigames and new level assets—were also added.[46] The localized version was later given a Japanese release as Sonic Adventure International.[4]:69[47]

Prior to the official launch of the Dreamcast in the United States, Sega made an exclusive deal with Hollywood Video to allow customers to rent the Dreamcast console along with Sonic Adventure. This promotion began on July 15, 1999 and took place at 1,055 Hollywood Video stores across the country.[48] This non-retail version of the game was called Sonic Adventure: Limited Edition.[49][50]

In 2001, Sega announced it would transition from a first-party to a third-party software publisher.[51][52] Wanting to reach new players by creating an enhanced version of one of their older games, in June 2003 the company released Sonic Adventure DX: Director's Cut, a port of Sonic Adventure for Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft Windows.[4]:141[18] While mostly identical to the original release, Sonic Adventure DX features updated graphics, including higher-resolution textures and more detailed character models,[9] has its frame rate locked at 60 frames per second,[2] and sports a redesigned Chao-raising system that uses connectivity with the Game Boy Advance (GBA). It includes sixty missions and the option to unlock all 12 Sonic games released for the Game Gear.[9] In this version, Metal Sonic can be unlocked as a playable character if all 180 emblems are collected.[53] These features were added to appeal to players of the original game.[4]:141

In September 2010, Sega re-released Sonic Adventure as a downloadable game on Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3, followed by a Windows release in March 2011 via Steam.[54][55][56] This version is based on Sonic Adventure DX and supports high-definition visuals,[54] but the missions, Metal Sonic, and the Game Gear games were removed. The former two can be re-implemented by purchasing them as DLC.[57] The game was also included as part of the Dreamcast Collection compilation in 2011,[58] and is backwards-compatible with the Xbox One.[59]


 Reception (Dreamcast)
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 87%[60]
Review scores
Publication Score
Allgame Star fullScript errorScript error[8]
Computer and Video Games Star fullScript error[44]
Edge 8/10[61]
Game Revolution Star fullScript error11pxScript error[5]
GameSpot 9.2/10[7]
IGN 8.6/10[6]

Sonic Adventure was highly anticipated by video game journalists because it was the first fully 3D Sonic platform game.[6][21] Upon release, the game received critical acclaim from reviewers,[4]:143[60] some of whom called it one of the greatest video games of all time.[44][62] It was the Dreamcast's best-selling game; by August 4, 2006, it had sold 2.5 million copies—this includes 440,000 in Japan and 1.27 million in the United States.[4]:143[63]

The game's visuals and presentation attracted wide acclaim.[6][64] Arcade magazine described it as a "quantum leap forward" in aesthetics and visual detail in video games,[64] and Hyper estimated they even exceeded what was possible on high-end personal computers.[65] Brandon Justice (IGN) called it the most graphically impressive platform game released up to that date, praising its cinematic sequences and describing it as "engrossing, demanding, and utterly awe-inspiring".[6] Peter Bartholow of GameSpot agreed and said only Soulcalibur's graphical quality surpassed that of Sonic Adventure.[7] Edge felt the game's graphical features showed off the Dreamcast's potential to the fullest and that the game was "perfect" as a showcase of what the system can do.[21]

The audio received mixed responses.[5][7] Bartholow and Colin Ferris (Game Revolution) called the full-motion video (FMV) cutscenes and voice acting well-produced and fitting, though the former noted poor lip-synching.[5][7] Justice, however, thought the cutscenes were repetitive and voiced strong disapproval of the voice acting, declaring it "a complete joke" and "downright awful". Justice had a particular distaste for Tails' voice, and fellow IGN writer Adam Sutton later called it among the most annoying to feature in a video game.[6][66] Scott Marriott of AllGame was conflicted; he appreciated Tails' portrayal but found Sonic's and Knuckles' voices unfitting.[8] Bartholow and Marriott praised the rock-style music and called it top-notch,[7][8] but Ferris described the score as "absolutely horrible".[5]

The gameplay was generally praised.[26][67] Bartholow admired the game's straightforward, linear approach to the 3D platform genre and particularly praised it for keeping the basic gameplay of the original Genesis games.[7] Justice said the game would keep players busy even after completion, noting its internet connectivity and other extras.[6] On the other hand, Ferris said apart from being quicker, the game did not advance the platform genre's design.[5] Retrospectively, 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die called its environments vast and twisted, stating it "brilliantly" captured traditional Sonic elements.[26]

The Chao minigame was noted as a major departure from the gameplay of the series.[5][8] Bartholow wrote that "while really just a diversion", the Chao were an interesting, fun addition, singling out their internet functions as a highlight.[7] Marriott said the Chao helped increase the game's replay value, although it was "strange", required patience, and did not provide bonuses in the main game.[8] Ferris called the Chao "a neat addition" and praised its use of the VMU.[5]

Some critics compared Sonic Adventure to Super Mario 64—Nintendo's "groundbreaking" 1996 game that propelled the Nintendo 64 and the 3D platform genre.[21][8] Edge said Sonic Adventure was a worthy rival to Super Mario 64,[21] but AllGame's Marriott wrote that Sonic Adventure was not as ambitious and that those looking for exploration would be disappointed with its linear gameplay. He compared it to the similarly linear Crash Bandicoot and said Sonic Adventure was more confined. Marriott praised the gameplay as varied and said its replay value was strong.[8] Game journalists Rusel DeMaria and Johnny L. Wilson retrospectively wrote Sonic Adventure was not as strong as Super Mario 64 and "failed to catch on with players in nearly the way that [Mario] had done", though it had fascinating features, such as "the use of the Tamagotchi-like memory card to incubate eggs for little pet creatures" and "some good action segments".[68]

The camera system and glitches were criticized by many reviewers.[69] Justice called the camera "incredibly" frustrating and inconsistent, and Bartholow noted it caused problems with the game's collision detection.[6][7] Edge complained the camera sometimes goes behind walls.[61] Authors from GamesRadar retrospectively wrote that Sonic Adventure was "horrendously buggy", singling out falling through floors and getting stuck but also said the game's abundance of content made up for this.[69]

Of the game as a whole, Bartholow said Sonic Adventure redefined the possibilities of the platform genre,[7] and according to Computer and Video Games (CVG), "many things you thought were impossible to see and experience in computer games are now here".[44] Marriott wrote that the game was an impressive showing of the Dreamcast's potential and that it was among the best of the series.[8] Edge said its criticisms such as scenery pop-up and instances of poor collision detection are "minor flaws in an otherwise very fine piece of work".[61] Speculation arose that the game could save the Dreamcast,[64][70] which had not sold well by the end of 1998,[64] or even re-establish Sega as the dominant console manufacturer after the relatively unsuccessful Saturn.[70]


Sonic Adventure DX: Director's Cut was received less positively than the original.[71] Giancarlo Varanini of GameSpot was disappointed the re-release did not address the problems of the original version and irritated the graphics were only marginally different, and made note of its shoddy collision detection. Varanini offered some praise for the extra features, such as the missions, but concluded players were better off playing the Dreamcast version.[2] IGN's Matt Casamassina agreed, calling it "a sloppy port of a game that has long been undeserving of its high praise", noted its frequent frame-rate drops, and called its camera one of the worst they had ever seen. They said the connectivity to the Game Boy Advance Sonic games added depth but concluded that this did not compensate for the problems in the port.[9] Nintendo World Report, however, praised the Game Gear games for retaining their multiplayer support and found Sonic and Tails’ gameplay enjoyable.[72]

Reviews of the 2010 re-release were generally unfavorable;[73] most of the criticism was directed at the perceived lack of effort put into the port.[54][74] IGN's Arthur Gies called it "so fundamentally flawed that it borders on unplayable", saying the sections that worked best required the least input from the player. They also noted the lack of widescreen support, though offering minor praise for its steady frame rate.[74] Ray Barnholt of lambasted the port for what he called its "slapdash" quality, criticizing its display, controls, and dated design, and saying it "feels like it wasn't even tuned for the Xbox 360 controller and its analog sticks".[54] Destructoid's Destin Legarie was less harsh, writing that fans of the franchise would be able to enjoy the game but warned casual players, "all you'll find is a relic that was once considered greatness", and that it pained him to say that.[75]


Prior to the release of Sonic Adventure, most 3D platform games focused on exploration and item-collecting; Sonic Adventure changed this with its linear gameplay.[7] According to writers at GamesRadar, it was one of the first sixth generation console games and "the gaming world was changed forever" despite the presence of some glitches.[69] Joystiq wrote that the original Sonic the Hedgehog and Adventure succeeded and innovated gaming—among 2D and 3D games, respectively—by feeling "good to play" and making effective use of linear level design.[76] In 2009, McKinley Noble of GamePro listed Sonic Adventure as the seventh-best platform game of all time, saying it had not aged well in certain aspects but its core gameplay remained among the best of the Sonic series.[67]

Many of Sonic Adventure's designs and concepts were reused in later games in the Sonic franchise. Yuji Uekawa's modernized character designs became a staple of the series,[25] as did its basic gameplay and direction.[77] One of the levels in the 2006 Sonic the Hedgehog reboot heavily references Sonic Adventure's Emerald Coast stage.[78] To celebrate the Sonic series' 20th anniversary in 2011, Sega released Sonic Generations, which reused aspects from past games in the franchise. The version of the game released for Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Windows contains reimagined versions of the Speed Highway level and the Perfect Chaos boss fight,[79][80] and the Nintendo 3DS version contains a remake of Emerald Coast.[81]

Several of the characters that first appeared in Sonic Adventure appeared in later games. In addition to his appearance in Sonic Generations, Chaos is an antagonist in the 2017 entry Sonic Forces;[82] he and Gamma are playable characters in the 2004 fighting game Sonic Battle,[83] and a re-creation of his boss fight appears in Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games.[84] The Chao creatures also feature predominantly in later games.[28][85] One of the characters introduced in the game, Big the Cat, became infamous for his negative reception in Sonic Adventure. Game Informer's Brian Shea considered his gameplay painful and boring,[86] while Legarie decried his portrayal as a "mentally handicapped imbecile" and his voice actor's incoherent performance.[75] Big is widely considered by video game journalists the worst character in the Sonic franchise,[86][87][88] and was named one of the worst video game characters of all time in a poll conducted by[89] Big's poor reception and perceived uselessness caused Sonic Team in 2012 to decide not to place him in any more games.[90]

On October 4, 1999, Sega announced that a sequel to Sonic Adventure was in development.[91] Sonic Adventure 2 made its debut at the Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) in June 2000,[92] and was released on June 20, 2001.[93] The sequel was designed to be more action-oriented than the slower-paced, story-centric Adventure and to give all the characters equal playtime.[28] Like its predecessor, Sonic Adventure 2 received very positive reviews from critics.[94] A second sequel, Sonic Adventure 3, was planned but was reworked into the 2008 release Sonic Unleashed.[95] In 2017, Iizuka stated there were no plans for a third Sonic Adventure game, saying it would not advance the series' design. He did not rule out the idea entirely, saying "If we can get the gameplay to evolve and get to a place where Adventure 3 makes sense, then you might see an Adventure 3 come out".[96]

The plot of Sonic Adventure was adapted as a story arc in the second season of the 2003 Sonic the Hedgehog anime series Sonic X. American licensing corporation 4Kids Entertainment hired an new voice cast for the English-language dub but the Japanese cast from the games reprised their roles in the original version of the show.[97] Archie Comics also adapted the game in its Sonic the Hedgehog comic book series. The comic offered an explanation for the altered character designs and established that Station Square was hidden beneath Sonic's planet, Mobius.[98]


  1. Japanese: ソニックアドベンチャー Hepburn: Sonikku Adobenchā? </li></ol>


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  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 Bartholow, Peter (December 31, 1998). "Sonic Adventure Review". CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved November 12, 2017. 
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