Miracleman, originally known as Marvelman in his native United Kingdom, is a fictional comic book superhero created in 1954 by writer-artist Mick Anglo for publisher L. Miller & Son. Originally intended as a home-grown substitute for the American character Captain Marvel, the series ran until 1963. He was revived in 1982 in a dark, post-modern deconstructionist series by writer Alan Moore, with later contributions by Neil Gaiman.
The character is notorious for the long, complex and expensive legal battle over various creative rights attached to it. As yet unresolved, the litigation has directly involved Gaiman, Todd McFarlane and several other people who also claim at least partial ownership of the character and the works containing him. This rights conflict has prevented the reprint and distribution of any of the Miracleman stories, making the critically acclaimed work extremely difficult to find.
Marvelman: The Mick Anglo yearsEdit
In 1954 Fawcett Comics, the U.S. publisher of Captain Marvel, discontinued the title after a lawsuit from DC Comics. Len Miller had been publishing black & white reprints of the series, along with other Fawcett titles, in the U.K., and rather than stopping he turned to comic writer Mick Anglo for help continuing (or replacing) the comic. They transformed Captain Marvel to Marvelman while Miller continued his other Fawcett reprint titles and used logos and trademarks that looked significantly like Fawcett's. This added to the appearance that the Fawcett line was continuing, and that Marvelman was still Captain Marvel, in order to retain the audience.
Marvelman was very similar to Captain Marvel: a young reporter named Micky Moran encounters an astrophysicist (instead of a wizard) who gives him his superpowers based on atomic energy. To transform into Marvelman, he has to speak the word "Kimota" (phonetically, "atomic" backwards; rather than "Shazam"). Instead of Captain Marvel Jr. and Mary Marvel, Marvelman was joined by Dicky Dauntless, a teenage messenger boy who became Young Marvelman, and young Johnny Bates, who became Kid Marvelman; both of their magic words were "Marvelman". They had fairly typical, unsophisticated superhero adventures.
The changes took place with issue number 25 in each title, both cover-dated February 3, 1954, although they had been announced about five issues earlier. The new titles published were Marvelman, Young Marvelman, and Marvelman Family . Marvelman and Young Marvelman each had 346 issues (#25-370), being published weekly except for the last 36 issues, which were monthly, reprinting old stories. Marvelman Family was a monthly which usually featured Marvelman, Young Marvelman and Kid Marvelman together, from October 1956 to November 1959. A variety of Marvelman and Young Marvelman albums were printed annually from 1954 to 1963. Mick Anglo's association with Len Miller ended in 1960, and the comics ran until February 1963.
At the height of their success, the British "Marvels" saw a series of Italian reprints. Gordon and Gotch, one of Australia's largest comics publishers, also published reprint editions. In Brazil, British Marvelman stories were reprinted in the same titles as Fawcett's original Captain Marvel. However, in Brazil, Marvelman became Jack Marvel.
Marvelman/Miracleman: The Alan Moore yearsEdit
Marvelman (in Warrior)Edit
In March 1982, a new British monthly black-and-white anthology comic was launched called Warrior. Until issue #21 (August 1984), it featured a new, darker version of Marvelman, written by Alan Moore, illustrated by Garry Leach and Alan Davis, and lettered by Annie Parkhouse. Warrior also published a Marvelman Special collecting Mick Anglo stories within a frame story by Moore. The "Marvel" trademark was now owned by Marvel Comics, who objected to its use it the series' title. Warrior's legal troubles led to the character being licensed to an American publisher: first to Pacific Comics, and after Pacific's collapse, to Eclipse Comics. They would reprint the series as Miracleman and then continue it.
Moore had been fascinated by the notion of a grown-up Michael Moran and this was the Moran presented in the first issue: married, plagued by migraines, having dreams of flying, and unable to remember the word that had such significance in his dreams. In his initial run of Marvelman stories, Moore touches on many themes of his later work, including the superhero as a source of terror, the sympathetic villain, and exploring the mythology of an established fictional character.
Moran is working as a freelance reporter when he gets caught up in a terrorist raid on a newly built atomic power plant. Fortuitously seeing the word "atomic" backwards when being carried past a door with the word written on glass, he remembers the word "Kimota", Marvelman is reborn and saves the day. As Marvelman, Moran remembers his early life as a superhero, but comic books are the only evidence, and his wife Liz finds his recollections of the adventures ridiculous. Moran later discovers that Johnny Bates (Kid Marvelman), not only also survived, but lived on with his superpowers intact. Bates, however, was corrupted by his power and is now a sociopath. After a brutal confrontation, Kid Marvelman says his magic word ("Marvelman") by mistake and reverts to his alter-ego, the 13-year-old Johnny Bates. The boy, innocent but aware of the evil he committed as Kid Marvelman, mentally recoils in shock and reverts into a catatonic state.
With the aid of renegade British Secret Service agent Evelyn Cream, and after a short fight with a new British superhero called Big Ben, Marvelman makes his way to a top secret military bunker. There he discovers remains of an alien spacecraft, and two non-human skeletons fused together. Marvelman views a file that reveals his entire experience as a superhero was a simulation as part of a military research project, codename "Project Zarathustra", attempting to enhance the human body using the alien technology. Moran and the other subjects had been kept unconscious, their minds fed with stories and villains plucked from comic books by the researchers, for fear of what they could do if they awoke. As their enhanced minds fought the enforced dreaming, those administrating the project grew fearful of what would happen if they awoke. As a result, it was decided that the project was to be terminated, and so were Marvelman and his two companions: in a final, real adventure they were sent into a trap where a nuclear device was meant to annihilate them. Moran survived, his memory erased, and Young Miracleman died. In the meantime, it is revealed that Liz has conceived a child with Marvelman, which has the potential of being the first naturally-born superhuman on Earth.
The series stopped (incomplete) in issue #21 of Warrior, just after Moran meets his dream-world arch-nemesis Dr. Gargunza (loosely based on Dr. Sivana). In "reality" Gargunza was the scientific genius behind the experiment that created Marvelman. Gargunza, after working as a geneticist for the Nazis, had been recruited by the British after World War II. Unable to keep pace with the U.S. and Soviet nuclear arms race, the British had backed Gargunza to use genetics to develop a new superweapon. By coincidence, an alien spacecraft crashed in the U.K. in 1947 and Gargunza was able to reverse-engineer enough technology to create the first Marvelmen. The alien technology, and thus the Marvelman project, consisted of giving someone a second body, which was stored in an extradimensional pocket of space when not in use; when a special word was spoken the two bodies switched place in space and the mind was transferred as well. After the cancellation of the project, Gargunza escaped to South America where he developed bio-technology weapons such as "Marveldog". It is revealed that Gargunza has a deeper purpose: after the death of his mother, he has a mortality complex, and intends that the child of Marvelman will act as the host of his own consciousness.
Name change to Miracleman EditIn August 1985, Eclipse began reprinting the Marvelman stories from Warrior, colourised, resized, and published under their own title. However, they were renamed and re-lettered throughout as Miracleman, due to pressure from Marvel Comics. Issues 1-6 reprinted all the Warrior content, after which Eclipse began publishing all-new Miracleman stories from Moore and new artist Chuck Beckum (aka Chuck Austen), soon replaced by Rick Veitch and then John Totleben. Moore wrote the series through Issue 16.
The new Miracleman material widened the story's scope and continued to build in intensity. Moran's daughter was born in issue 9 (which became somewhat controversial due to a highly graphic birth scene, based on medical illustrations of the process); two races of aliens, one called Warpsmiths, the other called Qys (who were behind the original body-swapping technology) came to Earth; Miraclewoman emerged; and certain native superhumans were revealed to already be living on Earth, such as Firedrake.
It was with the return of Kid Miracleman in issue 15 ("Nemesis") that Moore wrote at his darkest. Now out of his catatonia, the small, spindly boy has been repeatedly beaten by several older bullies at his group home. When one of them goes so far as to rape him, Johnny's desperation leads him to transform into Kid Miracleman. Slaughtering his attackers, Bates unleashes a murderous vengeful holocaust on London while Miracleman, Miraclewoman, and their allies are in outer space.
The gory excess of Kid Miracleman's rampage and that of the battle which followed when Miracleman and his allies return to discover the carnage is highly disturbing, featuring a degree of violence not previously seen in superhero battles. John Totleben's detailed apocalyptic renderings are still acclaimed today (by the few who possess a copy of the book). Depicted are people running from a rain of severed hands and feet, skins hung up on clothes lines, corpses impaled on the hands of Big Ben, the Tower Bridge in ruin, mounds of severed heads, heads on pikes, cars full of people plummeting to earth, mutilated children wandering screaming through the streets, and countless dead bodies.
When the Miracles discover what is happening, they and their alien allies collectively challenge Bates. Bates, however, has had many years more experience using his powers than any except Miraclewoman, and is unrestrained by reason or compassion in his use of them. The battle goes poorly, with none of them able to stop Bates. It is only when one of the Warpsmiths, Aza Chorn, realizes that they cannot go through Bates' personal forcefield, and instead teleports some wreckage inside the forcefield -- *into* the body of Kid Miracleman, that he is forced by pain to transform back to his mortal form. His rampage is stopped, but Bates kills Aza Chorn as his last act. Unwilling to risk another chance for repeating this horror, Miracleman quietly kills Johnny Bates, knowing that it is the only way to be certain it will never happen again. The heart of London, however, has been destroyed, 40,000 people are dead, the Warpsmith Aza Chorn lies dead, and the world now knows that gods walk among them.
Moore's last issue, number 16 ("Olympus") ends with an unsettling depiction of Miracleman's apotheosis, as he and his superhuman allies bring the entire planet under their totalitarian control. Miracleman and his companions, explicitly compared to gods, now rule the planet as they see fit, though they are ineffectively opposed by groups such as an alliance of Christian and Islamic fundamentalists. The "age of miracles" is ostensibly benevolent, but in scenes such as the final conversation between Miracleman and Liz, Moore suggests that Miracleman has lost his humanity and that his utopia is ultimately harmful to humankind. This ending contrasts with that of the simultaneously conceived serial V for Vendetta, in which the "hero" destroys a dystopian society. Lance Parkin's book on Moore argues that the two endings, read together, demonstrate the writer's refusal of "easy" utopian/dystopian answers (the ending also contrasts with the conclusion of Moore's Promethea, in which an "apocalypse" of expanded human consciousness heals rather than destroys the world).
The notion of bringing superhero fiction into the real world — having immensely powerful characters use their power to make drastic changes to global politics — has become an extremely popular theme in recent "mature" superhero fiction, such as Rising Stars, Squadron Supreme, Moore's own Watchmen, Kingdom Come, and The Authority.
We can gather a glimpse of how Moore originally meant the story to continue in Warrior issue 4 (also called the Warrior Summer Special), which features Marvelman and Aza Chorn gathering energy for the final battle with Kid Marvelman. This story has never been reprinted in any shape or form since then, so it remains an obscure yet highly discussed piece of comic history.
Miracleman: The Neil Gaiman yearsEdit
Writer Neil Gaiman picked up the series at #17, and developed it further in the 1990s, working with artist Mark Buckingham. He planned three books, consisting of six issues each; they would be titled "The Golden Age", "The Silver Age" and "The Dark Age".
The first part, "The Golden Age", showed the world some years later: a utopia gradually being transformed by alien technologies, and benignly ruled by Miracleman and other parahumans, though he has nagging doubts about whether he has done the right thing by taking power. Gaiman's focus in "The Golden Age" is less the heroes themselves than the people who live in this new world, including a lonely man who becomes one of Miraclewoman's lovers; a former spy (whose tale recalls J.G. Ballard's short story War Fever); and a robot duplicate of Andy Warhol.
Eclipse followed up "The Golden Age" by publishing the standalone, three-issue mini-series Miracleman: Apocrypha, written and illustrated by a variety of other creators, with framing pages by Gaiman and Buckingham. These stories did not form part of the main narrative, but instead further fleshed out the world of "The Golden Age".
Two issues of "The Silver Age" appeared, but issue #24 was the last to see print. Issue 25 was completed (apart from colouring) but due to the collapse of Eclipse it has never seen light. #23 and #24 saw the resurrection of Young Miracleman and would describe the beginnings of trouble in Miracleman's idyllic world, and #25 would have reintroduced Kid Miracleman. A few pages of issue #25 can be read at various sites online, and in George Khoury's book Kimota! The Miracleman Companion. "The Dark Age" would have seen the full return of the character of Kid Miracleman and completed the story once and for all.
During this period, Miracleman was a featured character in the mini-series Total Eclipse, written by Marv Wolfman and penciled by Bo Hampton, with pencil assists by James Ritchey III and Mark Pacella (among others), and inks by Rick Bryant.
A short story by Gaiman and Mark Buckingham (entitled "Screaming") appeared in Total Eclipse #4, where it technically comprised Gaiman's first published Miracleman story. This story was reprinted in issue #21 and in "The Golden Age" trade paperback.
The ownership of Miracleman and the character's futureEdit
The legal ownership of Miracleman is a complicated story, which stems from the character's beginnings.
L. Miller & Son was a U.K. publisher of dozens of comic titles. Len Miller reprinted material from many U.S. publishers and European sources as well as creating his own original British comics. One of Miller's main sources of income came from reprints of comic stories featuring Captain Marvel and the Marvel Family, originally created by Fawcett Publications in America. However, the company one day found itself facing the cancellation of two popular titles (Captain Marvel and Captain Marvel Jr.) due to the conclusion of a long-running legal battle between Fawcett and National Periodicals (the forerunner to DC Comics). National maintained that Fawcett's Captain Marvel infringed the copyright of National's Superman character (see National Comics Publications v. Fawcett Publications for further details). Faced with reduced sales in the 1950s, Fawcett Publications eventually capitulated and this decision meant that Captain Marvel would no longer be published.
Faced with the sudden loss of their star feature, L. Miller & Son, Ltd. turned to Mick Anglo to come up with a replacement character that, while ostensibly a new creation, mimicked enough core elements of Captain Marvel to retain the interest of readers who had enjoyed the reprints. Anglo created Marvelman, which proved successful enough to keep the Marvelman/Young Marvelman titles going. In 1959, Britain allowed the importation of "real" American comics for the first time since 1939. American publishers were quick to respond with "pence price" editions of popular titles. Soon, with new American four-color silver-age comics circulating in the United Kingdom, the demand for British produced black and white reprints began to shrink. Miller, in an effort to save money, cancelled Marvelman Family and turned both Marvelman and Young Marvelman into reprint books in 1959. This move, however, was not enough to save the titles, both of which struggled on, but were finally cancelled in 1963. Despite experimenting with format and a variety of material, L. Miller & Son Ltd. ceased comic book publication in 1966. The physical asbestos printing plates from which Miller had produced their comics, and presumably the rights to the comics as well, were sold to Alan Class, Ltd. Class, for his part, was interested primarily in horror and science fiction stories and reprinted few of the original Miller creations. Class was still using some of the Miller printing plates as recently as the late 1990s.
In 1960, a disgruntled Mick Anglo recycled some of his Marvelman stories as Captain Miracle which appeared briefly under his Anglo Comics imprint which folded in 1961. Anglo always claimed ownership of Marvelman and although creator's rights were almost unheard of in the work-for-hire British comics industry of the 1950s and, 1960s, at least some of Anglo's Marvelman stories do have a tiny "© Mick Anglo" in the margins lending a measure of credibility to Anglo's claim.
In 1982 when Warrior reintroduced Marvelman as its flagship title, the rights to the character were allegedly held in a four-way split between Warrior editor Dez Skinn, writer Alan Moore and artist Garry Leach, who owned 30% each, and the originating publisher, Quality Communications, which owned 10%.
However, in subsequent years there arose confusion as to how Skinn had gained the rights to Marvelman, or even if he actually held them. It is unlikely that the 1960s deal between Miller and Class was known in the 1980s. Several conflicting justifications were proposed:
- Skinn thought the rights were in the public domain.
- He had purchased outright the rights from Marvelman creator Mick Anglo.
- After publishing had already begun, he had offered some form of retroactive deal to Anglo.
- He just took the character, assuming there would be no interest in an obscure property owned by a dead company (Skinn has admitted, in the fan book Kimota!, that this fourth possibility was in fact the case).
As far as is known, Moore and Leach thought the second situation to be the case at the time, and believed their ownership to be legitimate. So when Leach left the strip and was replaced by Alan Davis, Moore, Skinn and Leach transferred part of their ownership of the character to Davis — with Skinn claiming 10% and Moore, Davis and Leach, 30% each. Moore and Leach continued to own the aspects of work they created. Further, Skinn says that when Anglo visited Quality's office to view the new work, he agreed to being paid only if his old work was reprinted, should the revision prove successful. This happened, and Anglo was paid against the Marvelman Special published in 1983. Skinn also comments that he never directly claimed to have bought the rights from Anglo, who may not even have held them to begin with, given his role as an editorial packager for L. Miller & Son.
To further complicate things, Marvel Comics, who objected to a competitor producing anything with "Marvel" in the title, threatened legal action in 1983. Even the rights to the alternate name for the character were murky, as Moore and Davis had already used the Miracleman name for a single-panel cameo appearance of a Marvelman duplicate in their run on Marvel UK's Captain Britain. With the creative team unable to produce a united front due to a series of differences between Moore and Davis, the strip saw its last appearance in Warrior issue #21, though Skinn did print letters he received from Marvel lawyers in Warrior's final two issues.
Eclipse Comics and bankruptcyEdit
In 1985 Eclipse Comics bought the rights from Skinn and started reprinting Marvelman, retitling it Miracleman to placate Marvel Comics. Davis, stating that he wanted no more to do with Moore or the situation, gave his rights to Leach.
So for much of the initial 16 issues on Miracleman, Eclipse believed they owned the rights to publish the character. When Moore completed his story with issue 16 and Eclipse announced they wished to continue publishing, Moore gave his 30% share to writer Neil Gaiman, who would be taking over the title, and Gaiman divided them between himself and artist Mark Buckingham.
Unfortunately, Eclipse went bankrupt in 1994. The last published Miracleman issue was #24; issue #25 is nearly complete (per Kimota!) but has never been printed. Also, Gaiman had approved a spin off series called Miracleman: Triumphant which was written by Fred Burke and drawn by Mike Deodato Jr. The first issue of Miracleman: Triumphant was complete and ready for printing, and the second was scripted, but like Miracleman #25 the two issues would remain in publishing limbo after the collapse of Eclipse.
Todd McFarlane vs. Neil GaimanEdit
In 1996, Todd McFarlane purchased Eclipse's creative assets for a total of $40,000. It has been suggested that McFarlane was mainly interested in the Miracleman rights; the rest of Eclipse's characters and properties were incidental, though he did not expect to keep them idle. McFarlane's plan was to reintroduce Eclipse's characters through two new Image Comics anthology titles, Todd McFarlane's Twisted Tales and Todd McFarlane's Alien Worlds. However, these were never printed and to date, the only Eclipse character to appear again has been The Heap in McFarlane's Spawn title.
McFarlane clearly had plans for Miracleman, but had neglected to consult Neil Gaiman, the last person to have held part of the rights. In 1993, Gaiman had created the characters Angela and Medieval Spawn for McFarlane. Gaiman claimed that he had created them with the understanding that he would retain creative ownership of them, an ownership which McFarlane now disputed. His plans stymied, in 1997 McFarlane reached a supposed verbal agreement (and according to Gaiman, a written one as well) with Gaiman in which Gaiman would cede his half-ownership of Cogliostro and Medieval Spawn in exchange for which McFarlane would trade his rights to Miracleman. A subsequent letter from McFarlane to Gaiman would void this deal, if it ever legally existed, as McFarlane claimed that he already owned the two characters and pointed to a copyright notice on Spawn #7 and cited them as the product of work-for-hire. He also stopped paying Gaiman royalties around this time for the action-figures and other items featuring the characters that were still in print. This was another of the direct causes for the legal action. At the time, no one was aware that the rights for Miracleman were not included in the purchase of most of Eclipse Comics' assets and both men believed that McFarlane held a large stake in Miracleman. That was a fact that would not become clear until after the lawsuit concluded. It turned out that McFarlane did, however, own two trademarks for Miracleman logos. Gaiman and Marvels and Miracles, LLC would take action to try to block him from being able to reregister these trademarks.
In 2001, McFarlane had introduced Mike Moran (Miracleman's alter ego) in Hellspawn #6, with the alleged intention of returning Miracleman himself in Hellspawn #13. This never came to pass as the lawsuit was filed before the book was ready for print. McFarlane also had included Miracleman in his section of what was then the long-delayed Image 10th Anniversary Book, known today as the Image Hardcover. He also released a Miracleman cold-cast statue as well as a 4" scale action figure that was partnered with Spawn in a San Diego Comicon exclusive two-pack. It had been McFarlane's intention to use the character in his core title. Since the Hardcover story became a direct tie-in to the events of Spawn #150 and beyond, Miracleman was changed into a mysterious new character known as the Man of Miracles. His appearance as Miracleman is explained by Man of Miracles ability to shape-shift and the fact that people see him as they wish to see him at the time.
Man of Miracles was released in action-figure form in Spawn Series 29, wearing a modified Miracleman costume and bearing one of McFarlane's two trademarked logos. This has created many fan-fueled rumors.
Marvels and Miracles LLCEdit
To aid him with the legal battle against McFarlane, Gaiman formed Marvels and Miracles LLC, a company whose goal was to clear up the ownership of Miracleman once and for all. In 2002 Gaiman sued McFarlane over his unauthorized use of Miracleman, prompting McFarlane to countersue in turn. McFarlane lost the suit, and the following appeal. The case was seen as one of the single most important events in the comic industry on the issue of creator's rights. Unfortunately, it only cleared up the confusion over the characters Gaiman had created for McFarlane. The issue of Miracleman was thrown out in both the initial lawsuit and the appeal before the 7th District Court and there have been no further legal papers filed on the subject.
Gaiman had been dropping hints that should he successfully win full ownership of Miracleman from McFarlane that the name would revert back to Marvelman, the character would see a return to publication through Marvel Comics, and that Marvel would also reprint all past material. In 2002, Gaiman wrote the 1602 series for Marvel. Gaiman's profits from this series went to Marvels and Miracles LLC to aid his legal fight over Miracleman. Gaiman's dedication in the collected editions of 1602 reads "For Stan Lee and Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, with infinite admiration. For Jonathan and Lenny, comics fiends. And, of course, to Todd, for making it necessary." Below, letterer Todd Klein thanks Gaiman for keeping him in mind, presumably to suggest that he, not McFarlane, is the beneficiary of Gaiman's remark, marking perhaps the only time a comic book letterer has submitted a dedication.
In late 2004 the A1 Sketchbook was released by Atomeka Press, in part including art from original Miracleman artist Garry Leach. It contained four Miracleman-related pin-ups (although the pin-ups were not labelled as Miracleman, likely to avoid further legal entanglements). A variant of the sketchbook was also produced, with a "Miracleman" front cover and "Kid Miracleman" back cover by Leach.
The character's future remains uncertain Template:Asof, due to further complications which have come to light since the end of Gaiman's case against McFarlane:
- Dez Skinn has claimed to possess written evidence that all shares of the character which Eclipse Comics purchased reverted back to their original creators after Miracleman had not been published for a number of years.
- Mick Anglo has claimed that the rights never left him and he has always owned the character.
- Alan Davis claims he owns the copyright of the art he produced for the character and also claims to have documentation to prove this. This, however, is common for all creators on the series — they own the rights to their work.
- It has become unclear exactly what happened to all of the assets of L. Miller & Son when they ceased publishing in 1966, possibly calling into question the claims of everyone concerned in the fight for the rights to Marvelman. Although subject to rumor and speculation, the nature and details of any transfer of property between Len Miller and Alan Class are unknown.
Further, any reprint would have to involve Garry Leach, as his Warpsmith characters, which appear in the stories, were only "loaned" to Eclipse for their Miracleman run. Warpsmith solo stories have featured in A1, published by Atomeka Press.
In the December 5th 2005 edition of Rich Johnston's column, it was revealed that a character called The Man Of Miracles would feature in Spawn #150. The character was errantly rumored to be a retcon of Cogliostro, a character Neil Gaiman originally created for McFarlane's Spawn series. Johnston's assertion was rebuffed on the Alan Moore Fansite:
… David Hine, the current Spawn writer, told me that he doesn't intend to have any character in Spawn whose ownership is currently contested and that as far as he is concerned, the character Man Of Miracles is not Miracleman and bears no resemblance to the character. He has a clear idea of who the character is, which will be made clear as the book progresses. And I know both he and his friend Mark Buckingham had discussed this amicably …An action figure of Man of Miracles was produced by McFarlane in Spawn Series 29.
Eventually the new Miracleman was revealed as the Man of Miracles, also known as MoM, also known as the Mother of Creation, an ageless and androgynous being of immense power, creator of worlds and gods, who, displeased about his/her sons, God and the Devil, sided with their common creation (as the Mother believes that God may have created mankind, but it was Satan's doing in granting them free will) and stalked the Earth in several forms, perceived differently by different people. The Miracleman form is just how Al Simmons comes to perceive it for a while: other forms in which he/she is known are Jesus Christ, Maya, Shiva and an unknown anime-inspired hero, a younger Moran with platinum-light blonde hair as Kaworu Nagisa and an unbuttoned blue jacket.
All of these books are currently out of print.
- Miracleman Book One: A Dream of Flying, by Alan Moore, Garry Leach, Alan Davis. Collects Miracleman issues 1-3, which in turn reprinted stories from Warrior issues 1-11.
- Miracleman Book Two: The Red King Syndrome, by Alan Moore, Alan Davis, Chuck Beckum, Rick Veitch. Collects Miracleman issues 4-7 and 9-10. (Issues 4-6 reprinted stories from Warrior issues 12-21; issue 8 reprinted Mick Anglo material; the rest, and everything below, were original to the Miracleman series.)
- Miracleman Book Three: Olympus, by Alan Moore, John Totleben, Rick Veitch. Collects issues 11-16.
- Miracleman Book Four: The Golden Age, by Neil Gaiman and Mark Buckingham. Collects issues 17-22, but does not contain the "Retrieval" storyline published in those issues.
- Miracleman: Apocrypha, by various.
- Paperback: Eclipse Books, 1992. ISBN 1-56060-189-2.
- Kimota! The Miracleman Companion, by George Khoury, paperback, TwoMorrows Publishing, 2001, ISBN 1-893905-11-X
- The Origin of Marvelman, by Matthew H. Gore, Comic Book Marketplace #22
- Boardman Comics Monographs #1: The Origin of Marvelman, by Matthew H. Gore, 48 pages, Boardman Books, 2006
- Miracleman at the Comic Book DB
- Marvelman (Warrior) at the International Catalogue of Superheroes
- The Origin of Marvelman
- Neil Gaiman's journal entry on The Silver Age
- Guide to Miracleman at Sequart.com
- Introduction to The Golden Age by Samuel R. Delany
- Moore's Marvel: The Miracleman Story, by Frank Smith at NinthArt.com
- Neil Gaiman's latest comment (2005-03-21) on the legal dispute
- 4ColorHeroes Miracleman
- Captain Marvel Culture A history of the many Captain Marvels and their social and historical significance
- Interview with Todd McFarlane about the character rights issue — Now Playing magazine
- Interview with Neil Gaiman about the character rights issue — Sequart
- Miracleman History and Reviews
- Whatever Happened to Miracleman? — History and overview of the character's legal situation, for Wizard magazine
- Land of Lost Tales: The Lost Miracleman Story by George Khoury, Pop!, Comic Book Resources, October 19, 2008
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