A mutant with the ability to convert sound vibrations into light and energy beams, Dazzler was originally developed as a cross-promotional, multi-media creation between Casablanca Records, Filmworks, and Marvel Comics until the tie-ins were dropped in 1980. The character was created by a committee of Marvel staff, principally writer/editor Tom DeFalco and illustrator John Romita, Jr.
Despite the fact that Dazzler was originally commissioned as a disco singer, the character shifted to other musical genres, including rock and adult contemporary. She starred in a self-titled solo series in the early 1980s, and later joined the cast of the X-Men. She was briefly a member of the spin-off group Excalibur but now has re-joined the X-Men.
Origins of DazzlerEdit
Dazzler was originally a project commissioned by Casablanca Records in the mid-late 1970s, to be a cross-promotion in the mold of KISS, who had two successful comic book tie-in super-specials by the end of 1977. Marvel Comics would develop a singing superheroine, while Casablanca would produce a singer. The two companies would then work with Filmworks and produce a tie-in motion picture; Marvel Comics Editor-in-Chief Jim Shooter wrote a treatment for the project.
The character was originally conceptualized as "The Disco Queen" with the power to make people tell the truth. Initially, no one wanted anything to do with the project. Marvel Comics appointed former Archie Comics writer Tom DeFalco to the character and he developed some changes to the character, namely suggesting light-based powers. Roger Stern conceived of the character's name, Dazzler, while John Romita, Jr. provided pencils.
Artist John Romita, Jr. originally intended for the character to resemble model, actress, and singer Grace Jones, as seen in early depictions. However, representatives from Filmworks – wanting to promote model and actress Bo Derek – insisted on design changes to reflect Derek's features.
To promote Dazzler, Casablanca wanted it cross-promoted within several key Marvel Comics titles: The X-Men, The Fantastic Four, and Spider-Man in particular, with Dazzler debuting in The Uncanny X-Men because she was a mutant character. However, Casablanca continued to request conceptual changes to the character's appearance and personality, leading to several cancellations of the project. Eventually, Casablanca Records backed out of the Dazzler project altogether due to financial concerns. Marvel Comics, left with a much-publicized new character, decided to launch the project as a monthly series.
According to writer Tom DeFalco, Dazzler was canceled "five or six times" prior to its launch in March 1981. At the time, Marvel Comics was looking for other filmmakers to invest in a Dazzler cross-promotion. However, Jim Shooter and Stan Lee decided to launch the series without such a partnership because of their "faith in the character."
By this time, Dazzler #1 was edited to reflect changes in the Marvel Comics universe and to fit the new 22-page publication format. X-Men member Cyclops was edited out of the issue, and Kitty Pryde inserted, and an additional "origin of the Dazzler" sequence was added to fill new pages. Also, Dazzler distanced its character from the disco genre, as the creators recognized the disco fad was fading by 1980.
In a revolutionary move, Shooter decided to release Dazzler #1 exclusively to comic specialty shops, bypassing the wider circulation market. This was the first comic exclusively delivered to comic shops - a relatively new industry for 1981. Over 400,000 copies of issue 1 were pre-sold, more than double the average comic sales amount.
Dazzler proved a success, largely due to the many Marvel Comics characters in its first few issues; Spider-Man, The Human Torch, Doctor Doom, Galactus, The Hulk, The X-Men, and Klaw were just a few of the several guest stars who placed Dazzler squarely into the Marvel Universe. Dazzler herself also guest starred in Marvel titles, such as The Uncanny X-Men, The Avengers, and the Marvel crossover, Contest of Champions.
The series, however, was not free from critique. Several readers disapproved of the "real life" focus of Dazzler, including the focus on "soft plots" — career, family, relationships — rather than action-based and more traditional superhero plot devices.Template:Fact Dazzler's "superhero" outfit was her performance outfit, which also serves as a major disconnect from the superhero staples of the day. Years later, DeFalco reflected on these criticisms as an inherent hypocrisy with the readership: on one hand, readers clamored for something "new", which was how Dazzler was conceived. Yet on the other, they wanted Dazzler to be a superheroine in the mold of Phoenix and conform to other superheroic stereotypes.Template:FactJohn Romita, Jr. left Dazzler in issue #3, and was replaced by Frank Springer, who penciled most of the Dazzler series. DeFalco stayed on as chief writer through issue #6, and helped successive writer Danny Fingeroth with several of the following issues. Fingeroth and Springer remained the Dazzler stable team through issue #27.
Eventually, Dazzler failed to adequately create its own cast and began to lose commercial appeal. With issue #25, Dazzler became a bi-monthly publication. This schedule, along with extreme character changes and a lackluster spin-off miniseries, further complicated the character and series’ appeal to both existing and new readers.Template:Fact Springer changed Dazzler from a singer in New York to an aspiring actress in Los Angeles. To promote this new direction, Marvel had artist Bill Sienkiewicz do painted artwork pieces for several Dazzler covers, from issues #27 through #35. Springer left Dazzler with issue #32, and returned briefly for issue #35 and the Dazzler: The Movie graphic novel.
Marvel attempted to jump-start the series with a tie-in graphic novel and miniseries that would highlight the character's career struggles in a prejudiced world. While the graphic novel received acclaim, the miniseries and regular Dazzler series suffered.
In a final attempt, Archie Goodwin and Paul Chadwick were assigned to Dazzler with issue #38, ditching the singer-subtext and making Dazzler more of a generic superheroine with an official costume. It did not save the series, and Dazzler was eventually canceled in 1985. After that she was briefly considered as a possible X-Factor founding member, but the decision to resurrect Jean Grey put that idea aside.
After this, the character would go on to a notable run as an X-Men member, before disappearing completely for much of the 1990s and early 2000s, barring occasional cameos. With the launch of New Excalibur, she returned to monthly publication for the first time as a prominent cast member in over fifteen years.
Behind the scenesEdit
Common misconceptions have resulted from the obfuscation of Dazzler's creation – namely, several readers believe X-Men creative team Chris Claremont and John Byrne were the character's originators. Although they wrote and penciled her first appearance, they had nothing to do with the character or her series' creation.
Fictional character biographyEdit
Alison was born in Gardendale, New York to Carter and Katherine Blaire. Her mutant powers first manifested when she was in high school. An aspiring singer, she volunteered to perform at her school dance when her light-generating abilities first appeared. Everyone at the dance assumed it was a technologically-generated special effect, an assumption commonly made before she reveals herself to be a mutant later in her life.
Using the stage name "Dazzler", Alison sets out to make a name for herself in the music industry, using her light powers and dancing ability to enhance her performances. It is at one of her shows that Alison first meets the X-Men, who are fighting the forces of the Hellfire Club at the time. Alison aids the X-Men this time, but refuses their offer to join the team.
Dazzler hides her status as a mutant from all but those closest to her. After acquainting herself with the various Marvel Comics superheroes, Alison finds herself continually using her abilities to fight both ordinary criminals and rogue superhumans — often at the expense of her career ambitions. On one occasion, she meets Spider-Man, and teams with him against the Lightmaster. She later battles the Enchantress, is overwhelmed by Doctor Doom, the Absorbing Man and then fights off Nightmare. She briefly allies with the Blue Shield, and aids the X-Men and Spider-Woman against the misguided Caliban. On another occasion, she battles the Hulk and establishes a long standing feud with the then-mentally unstable Rogue. She also had a romantic affair with Warren Worthington III.Template:Issue
In the course of her inadvertent adventures, she even encounters the planet-devouring Galactus, who initially thinks she is of little notice and generally ignores her. Nevertheless, he temporarily endows her with cosmic energy so she can retrieve his herald Terrax for him. In addition to being offered membership into the X-Men, Alison is also asked to audition for a place in the Avengers. She declines while facing Fabian Stankowicz (who is ultimately easily defeated by the Wasp), saying that the superhero "trip wasn't for [her]."
After moving to Los Angeles in a vain attempt to help her half-sister Lois London, Alison attempts careers in fitness training, dancing, modeling, and acting. Influenced both by her lover, Roman Nekoboh, and her desire to abate the growing anti-mutant sentiment, Alison publicly declares her mutant identity. The revelation backfires, destroying her reputation and career and inflaming anti-mutant sentiment, which sends Alison into a depressive state. Forced again into hiding, she spends some time as a keyboard player in rock singer and fellow mutant Lila Cheney's band. While on tour, the band's plane crashes, which leads to Dazzler, Lila, and a bandmate being successfully rescued by Cannonball and his brother, Joshua. Lila has been knocked out so Dazzler uses the music Joshua plays at the scene to blast a hole through the wreckage. Alison is later possessed by the psychic mutant Malice. She is saved and taken in by the X-Men, becoming a member of the team.
During her tenure with the X-Men, Dazzler receives training, attains greater control over her powers, and develops a romance with the extra-dimensional Longshot. She is also forced to work alongside the now-reformed Rogue. Despite considerable tension between them at first, due to Alison's difficulty getting over Rogue's attempts to kill her in the past, over time she eventually believes Rogue is genuinely remorseful and forgives her. Dazzler struggles with her career ambitions and personal insecurities, and eventually she and her team-mates in the X-Men enter the mystical Siege Perilous, which leaves her in an amnesiac state. Discovered washed up on a beach by her former bodyguard Strong Guy, she is nursed back to health by him and Lila Cheney, though their efforts prove unsuccessful in helping restore her memory. It is eventually restored when she is found by Longshot. Devastated by the loss of her career, Alison ventures to Longshot's native "Mojoworld", and remains there to help fight in the ongoing rebellion against the tyrant Mojo along with Lila Cheney.
Dazzler eventually returns to Earth without Longshot after an unfortunate series of events, including miscarriage and war. She helps Jean Grey in the fight against a repowered Magneto, who is backed by an army of Genoshans. She and Jean lead a small band of mutants to back up the original X-Men, who are in Genosha already. Dazzler faces down Magneto who turns her powers against her and incinerates her. As he arrogantly boasts about his triumph, Dazzler reveals herself to be alive and well. She and Jean had concocted a plan for Alison to generate a hard-light hologram of herself to distract Magneto who was then killed by Wolverine. After the conclusion of this incident, the X-Men offer Alison support for her personal problems, but she declines.
Characters in the Marvel Universe that are counted among her fans are Juggernaut, former teammate Colossus, the Hulk, Northstar, Julia Carpenter, The Rhino, Molly Hayes from Runaways, Kitty Pryde, and Pixie.
- Main article: Excalibur (comics)#New Excalibur (2005-2007)
The Dazzler later re-establishes her musical career, marketing her trademark disco image as part of the Techno/Trance genre. Alison moved her career abroad to England and joined with X-Men allies such as the Juggernaut and Captain Britain.Template:Issue She was reunited with Longshot in the X-Men: Die by the Sword miniseries, although Longshot was suffering from amnesia and did not remember her. However, during the course of the miniseries he regained his feelings for her and some of his memories.Template:Issue Longshot left the Exiles to reestablish his relationship with Dazzler but the couple split ways due in part to Dazzler's frustration with other women's attraction to Longshot (which is a part of his power set), but mainly because of the realization that Longshot was literally no longer the man she loved because of his amnesia.Template:Issue
Return to the X-MenEdit
As of Uncanny X-Men #500, Alison rejoins the X-Men in San Francisco after divorcing her husband, Longshot, due to the fact that their relationship was just not the same after his loss of memory. Pixie is seen leaving a club with a friend where Alison has recently performed. Dazzler requests Pixie to join her on stage in future shows due to Pixie's mutant abilities, but Pixie declines the offer. Dazzler has established a career as a musician, finally landing a big break. Dazzler has also been shown to take part in the X-Men: Secret Invasion mini-series, which is part of Marvel Comics' 2008 crossover, Secret Invasion.Template:Issue
Powers and abilitiesEdit
Dazzler is a mutant with the ability to transduce sonic vibrations which reach her body into various types of light. This ability seems to operate over a great range of frequencies, including the audible spectrum, and a great variation of sound pressure levels regardless of the complexity, dissonance, or randomness of the sound. For example, a car crash and a symphonic passage of equal duration will both produce usable incoming acoustic vibrations.
Dazzler, however, prefers utilizing the sound of music, particularly that which is rhythmically sustained. Not only is music more pleasant to her ears, but the steady beat of contemporary music provides a more constant source of sound to convert. The precise means by which this conversion process works is as yet unknown. Left undirected, Dazzler's light will radiate from her body in all directions, producing regular flashes of white light. By conscious control over the light she produces, she can control its direction, frequency (color), amplitude (intensity), and duration.
Apparently, Dazzler must consciously or subconsciously will the light to leave her body. Otherwise, light would "leak" from her at all times, even when she was asleep or unconscious. Dazzler can produce numerous effects with the light she converts from sonic vibrations. She can simply cause a bright glow all about her body. She can create very simple patterns out of rays of light like circles, squares, triangles, and stars, or even certain combinations of patterns which produce trance-like effects in her targets. She can also make a shrouding fog consisting of pure light. With effort, she can even create holograms of human beings and other three-dimensional beings and objects. She can create a pulse of light on the order of several thousand watts of power, which temporarily blinds people with its brilliance. She can create a chaotic cascade of sparkling lights and colors that severely upsets other people's equilibrium, or a pulsating strobe-light effect. By concentrating, Dazzler can generate a coherent beam of light, approximating a laser beam, with which she can cut through virtually anything.
Her training with the X-Men, especially with Cyclops, has taught her how to produce such laser-like beams with much less effort than it previously required of her. She generally directs the laser from a single finger when she requires precision in its use, since pointing aids her in defining its direction. However, she can also direct laser blasts from both hands at once when she wishes, as well as from her eyes, for example, to demolish a large structure. She most often uses her hands for directing her light effects, but she could also use other parts of her body.
Since studying with the X-Men, she has become adept at directing her blinding strobe light blast from her eyes. Dazzler has also learned how to create a destructive shield about herself with laser light that can vaporize oncoming projectiles. The most powerful manifestation of her abilities is a concentrated beam of solid photons she usually fires from her right index finger. The beam is extremely powerful and as a consequence uses a great deal of her energy reserves. She has since learned how to produce these blasts without draining herself, while still providing them with considerable power. She has also recently shown the ability to form her photon emissions into solid constructs, such as swords and staffs. Dazzler's potential to convert sound to light is unlimited. Curiously, she cannot use her own unamplified voice as a source of sound for her transduction abilities. Dazzler's body, especially her eyes, shields itself against any injurious effects of her light transducing abilities and against those of bright lights in general. Her ability to transduce sound also protects her from being deafened by loud noises.
Since the events of Dazzler: The Movie, Alison's body can store light energy for future discharge on occasional instances of extreme duress.
She has been shown to create a "null space" of sound in a certain radius of her person, as a result of "pulling" the sound in her area to her person, to either protect a crowd of people as in "Dazzler: The Movie" or to supercharge her power reserves.
Dazzler is a highly skilled athlete, and has become an excellent hand-to-hand combatant thanks to her training with the X-Men, and with the Gladiators. In addition, she is a talented singer, actress, and dancer. She is also a highly accomplished roller skater and can move at high speed; she occasionally wears a pair of roller blades which magnetically adheres to her boots.
Thanks to Professor X, Dazzler's costume contains devices that enable her to store sonic energy more efficiently and to gauge and focus the light she generates with greater skill. She formerly carried a customized radio/cassette tape player to provide her with sound until she acquired the sound storing devices in her costume.
Age of ApocalypseEdit
- Main article: Age of Apocalypse
Dazzler appears as a member of the X-Men. She is a chain smoker, having no use for a singing voice in this timeline. She is also more skilled with her powers, being able to create hard-light constructs, as well as manipulate both light and sound energies. With this new power-set, Dazzler serves as a one-woman training facility, as well as a messenger via holographic transmissions. She was romantically involved with Exodus and did not accompany the main team of X-Men in the final assault on Apocalypse.
Dazzler was one of the characters involved in the original Age of Apocalypse to be brought back for the Age of Apocalypse 10th Anniversary miniseries. Like many of the other X-Men, Dazzler's costume in the 10th anniversary reflects an updated take on her original costume: the silver jumpsuit. Against the battle with Mr. Sinister's Sinister Six, Dazzler was swallowed within Cloak's dark dimension, but is ultimately saved by a lightning bolt from Storm which forces Cloak to spit her back out.
In X-Men: The End, a series about the X-Men's hypothetical future, Dazzler reverted her costume to reflect her classic, silver design, continuing her career as a singer. Dazzler, an occasional "reserve" team member, joined Storm and X-Men members Iceman, Bishop, Psylocke, and Sage for Xavier's "Plan B" team. Co-piloting the ship to the extraterrestrial Shi'ar homeworld, Dazzler uses her powers to create a light show, calming the passions of the battling X-Men and Shi'ar Imperial Guard. The series' primary villain — Cassandra Nova — then manifests, slaying the Imperial Guard and leaving the remaining X-Men as her sole adversaries. Dazzler uses her lasers to blast a hole through Cassandra's head, to no avail. Dazzler was then killed by Cassandra Nova in retaliation, along with several of her teammates. Dazzler is believed to be among the slain X-Men that were invited to a plane of higher existence by the Phoenix.
When Wanda Maximoff, the Scarlet Witch, used her reality-altering powers to change the world, Dazzler became one of the most famous mutants on Earth. After having a successful singing career as a teenager, Dazzler continued her career as the world's primary media personality via her syndicated talk show.
The House of M newsprint special featured a tabloid-esque blind article, indicating that Alison's signature lightshow was fading due to a rare blood disorder, which was causing her to lose her mutation. Storm used Alison's popular talk show to sound off on her disapproval of Magneto's handling of mutant affairs and Mister Sinister was seen watching the Alison show when Deadpool went to rescue an infant Cable.
Dazzler appears as one of the few uninfected heroes in the limited series Marvel Zombies vs. Army of Darkness. There, she is almost eaten by an infected Winter Soldier until he gets killed by Ash Williams. Ash is attracted to Dazzler, but she doesn't reciprocate his feelings. As a thanks for saving her, Dazzler agrees to help Ash find the Necronomicon book that might put an end to the zombies. The duo pair up with the Scarlet Witch to discover that the Necronomicon is being kept at Doctor Doom's fortress in Latveria. Ash discovers the Necronomicon, but unfortunately it has nothing to do with this worlds infection. On his way back, he meets an imprisoned Enchantress. Because of the nature of her powers, Ash believes the Enchantress is unaffected. In a confrontation with Dazzler, the Enchantress bites off her finger, infecting her with the zombification virus. Before she can react, Doctor Doom appears and destroys both women.
This series is the first since Dazzler's 1980 solo series to feature the character primarily as a Marvel Comics heroine, with greater links to superheroes such as the Avengers and Fantastic Four, rather than as an X-Men memberTemplate:Fact.
Another zombified Dazzler is quite visible in the bottom left corner of the large center cell on page 13 of Issue #23 of Ultimate Fantastic Four – part 3 of the three-part arc that introduced the "Marvel Zombies" Universe [the three part arc consisted of Ultimate Fantastic Four issues 21-23]. As noted, Dazzler was destroyed - disintegrated - by Doctor Doom in the "Marvel Zombies Vs. Army of Darkness" limited series and hence, never lived to become a zombie.
The Ultimate incarnation of Dazzler (Alison Blaire) is introduced as a punk rock singer in Ultimate X-Men #42. Alison briefly joins Emma Frost's Academy of Tomorrow when promised a record deal, but joins the X-Men after they rescue her from a Sentinel attack. There she is called "Dazzler", the name of her band. Alison often shows a lack of enthusiasm for the X-Men or their missions, but after learning of a proposed public execution of a mutant, she convinces a group of teammates to go on a rescue mission. When the mission goes astray and Angel is captured, Dazzler takes initiative and leads the team on a rescue mission. This leads to the accidental release of Longshot.
Later, she and Angel go out on a presumed 'date' (really an effort to get themselves involved with the X-Men's latest mission) preventing the Academy of Tomorrow students from attacking the Triskelion. During the incident, power is lost and one of the inmates, Deathstrike impales Dazzler through the chest. Ironically, Deathstrike is defeated by the very killer Dazzler has assisted before.
Dazzler stays in a coma for several weeks, visited many times by Nightcrawler who has an unrequited crush on her. Unfortunately, many factors have combined to unhinge Nightcrawler and as soon as she is able to be moved, he fools her into thinking they must escape. Initially trusting him, she cooperates until the rest of the X-Men rescue her.
The others, understanding Nightcrawler is mentally ill, plan to rehabilitate him. Dazzler does not accept this and quits the team in protest. She has since been labeled as one of the "most important" mutants to the X-Men's cause by the future Bishop.
Dazzler later joins Bishop's new team in Ultimate X-Men #82. Bishop dies in Ultimate X-Men #90, and since then Dazzler has returned to the Xavier Institute to be with Angel and on Xavier's X-Men team once again. She is seen to be on Colossus' enhanced team, seemingly with the ability to generate solid light spider legs and constructs and later faces off against Wolverine with hard-light versions of his claws.
Dazzler's powers allow her to convert sonic vibrations into various forms of photovoltaic energy, including concussive photon pulses, laser beams, hard light holographic illusions, destructive force fields, light fog, hypnotic bursts of light, and levitationTemplate:Fact. Her photon pulses have been shown as strong enough to destroy several Sentinels at once. Previews for Ultimate X-Men 98 show that she, along with Kurt Wagner died in the Ultimatum wave.
A woman from Earth-721, was given the powers and appearance of Dazzler by Interlocking Technologies. She came to Earth-616 and impersonated the original Alison. She toured the Western States of the USA in Dazzler's original costume. However, she was ultimately discovered, stripped of her powers and returned to Earth-721.
In two similar What If? stories (What if Cable had destroyed the X-Men? and What if Magneto took over the U.S.A.?) based on Uncanny X-Men #269, Dazzler is an agent of Magneto. She is ultimately killed by a Sentinel warhead. The second Earth is designated Earth-21993. In What if (1st series) #33 (June 1982), Dazzler decides to stay Galactus’ herald after she defeats Terrax. After many years of servitude, she is free to return to Earth. When she arrives, Dazzler discovers the Earth had become a barren wasteland. With nowhere else to go, she returns to Galactus.
In other mediaEdit
- Dazzler appeared in the Pryde of the X-Men animated pilot. Alexandra Stoddart provided Dazzler's voice.
- She also guest starred in the X-Men animated series. Dazzler appeared as a background character in "Mojovision", and was central to the plot of "Dark Phoenix Saga Part 1: Dazzled", in which Donald Pierce tries to kidnap her in order to force her to join the Inner Circle of the Hellfire Club.Template:Fact
- Dazzler appears in the Wolverine and the X-Men episode "Greeting from Genosha." She is briefly seen performing a concert on Genosha.
- In the film X2: X-Men United, her name appears on a list of names Mystique scrolls through on Stryker's computer while looking for Magneto's file.
- Dazzler was also rumored to make a cameo appearance in X-Men: The Last Stand and portrayed by Canadian country singer Beverley Mahood. Mahood didn't get a chance to film any scenes as her character was ultimately cut out of the final script.Template:Fact
- Dazzler was a playable character in the X-Men arcade game released by Konami in 1992.
- Dazzler was also a playable in two early PC X-Men games by Paragon Software: X-Men: Madness in Murderworld and X-Men II: The Fall of the Mutants.
- Dazzler was briefly mentioned in X-Men Legends by Jubilee.
- Dazzler appears as a non-playable character (NPC) in X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse. Raven designed an online-exclusive "Dazzler's Nightclub" level for a mission which reenacts Uncanny X-Men #130, where the X-Men must protect Dazzler from the Hellfire Club guards. Closer inspection of the game's files reveals a dialogue portrait, HUD head, and unique character select animations for Dazzler—indicating that at some stage of development Raven Software had intended her to be a playable character.
- In issue 5 of the bimonthly Simpsons Comics from Bongo entitled "When Bongos Collide", the citizens of Springfield were transformed into costumed super-characters. Lisa Simpson called herself "The Jazzler" and had powers very similar to Dazzler's. The only difference is that Lisa draws her powers from her saxophone.
- "Dissecting the Dazzler", Interview with DeFalco, Simonsen, and Stern
- Dazzler Series Synopsis, William George Ferguson
- UncannyXmen.net Spotlight feature on Dazzler
- Dazzler at Marvel Universe
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